Earlyish 2006, also I cannot see how a key can be prgrammed as they only transmit and don't receive.
The imobiliser part of the key is wireless and is a passive transmitter as is same for all makes(doesn't use the battery, when in close prximity to an emf field it uses the emf fields energy to transmit).
The keys transmit codes, it is the cars c/locking system and
that are prgrammed to accept them.
C/locking accepts lock/unlock and
accepts the immobiliser.
I have also seen these card keys being sold officialy by car part dealers.
However I would be surpised if there wasn't a database Renault technicians have to access to determine whether or not a key has arlready been used.
(most of this is purely an educational geuss I will admit)
P.S ANY technician at ANY dealer can easily get any type of key copied regardless of type for unlawfal purposes and also note you car records what keys are programmed to it.....