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Common rail
Common Rail

Common rail direct fuel injection is a modern variant of direct injection system for diesel engines. It features a high-pressure (1000+ bar) fuel rail feeding individual solenoid valves, as opposed to low-pressure fuel pump feeding pump nozzles or high-pressure fuel line to mechanical valves controlled by cams on the camshaft. Third generation common rail diesels now feature piezoelectric injectors for even greater accuracy, with fuel pressures up to 180... Read More
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Electronic Control Unit

In automotive electronics, an electronic control unit (ECU) is an embedded system that controls one or more of the electrical subsystems in a vehicle. Some modern cars have up to 70 ECUs.
Exhaust Gas Recirculation

EGR is a NOx (nitrogen oxide and nitrogen dioxide) reduction technique used in most gasoline and diesel engines.

EGR works by recirculating a portion of an engine's exhaust gas back to the engine cylinders. Intermixing the incoming air with recirculated exhaust gas dilutes the mix with inert gas, lowering the adiabatic flame temperature and (in diesel engines) reducing the amount of excess oxygen. The exhaust gas also increases the... Read More
Particle Filter

The Particle Filter is an additional filter fitted in the exhaust system that is designed to filter out harmful soot particles from the exhaust gases and help protect the environment. The Particle Filter is fitted exclusively to diesel engines and reduces emissions of such particles to below the measurable threshold of 5mg per km, which is well below the Euro IV emissions regulation standard of 25mg per km.

Whether or not a Particle Filter is... Read More

Ethylene glycol (monoethylene glycol (MEG), IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an alcohol with two -OH groups (a diol), a chemical compound widely used as an automotive antifreeze. In its pure form, it is an odorless, colorless, syrupy liquid with a sweet taste. Ethylene glycol is toxic, and its accidental ingestion should be considered a medical emergency.
IDE (Injection Direct Essence)

Renault launched the first European direct injection petrol engine. It avoids the troubles encountered by Mitsubishi by implementing in a completely different way.

Instead of pursuing ultra-lean air / fuel mixture, they adopt ultra-high EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation). EGR, as mentioned here before, reduces fuel consumption by reducing pumping loss as well as by reducing the effective engine capacity during light or part load.... Read More
Ignition Coils
Ignition Coils

An ignition coil (also called a spark coil) is an induction coil in an automobile's ignition system which transforms a storage battery's 12 volts to the thousands of volts needed to spark the spark plugs.

This specific form of the autotransformer, together with the contact breaker, converts low voltage from a battery into the high voltage required by spark plugs in an internal combustion engine.

In older vehicles a single... Read More

A mass airflow sensor is used to determine the mass of air entering the engine. The air mass information is necessary to calculate and deliver the correct fuel mass to the engine. Air is a gas, and its density changes as it expands and contracts with temperature and pressure. In automotive applications, air density varies with the vehicle's operating environment, and is an ideal application for a mass sensor. (See stoichiometric, ideal gas law, and density.) There are... Read More
MAP Sensor
Map Sensor

A MAP sensor (manifold absolute pressure) is one of the sensors used in an internal combustion engine's electronic control system. Engines that use a MAP sensor are typically fuel injected. The manifold absolute pressure sensor provides instantaneous pressure information to the engine's electronic control unit (ECU). This is necessary to calculate air density and determine the engine's air mass flow rate, which in turn is used to calculate the appropriate fuel... Read More
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